- seeds are edible after drying, popping, or frying, and can subsequently be ground to flour.
- seeds can be taken from dried capsules.
- rhizome is edible after prolonged boiling with several changes of water.
- rhizome can be roasted or boiled, then peeled and either eaten or thinly sliced for drying and then either stored or ground into flour .
- varieties in the Pacific Northwest include Yellow cow-lily (Nuphar lutea) and Western cow-lily (Nuphar polysepala).
- grows in shallow, calm water in plains, montane, and subalpine regions.
- warning: eat in moderation, large amounts may be poisonous.