- the young, tightly coiled tender tips of plant are called 'fiddleheads'.
- the spring fiddleheads of all varieties of north temperate ferns are edible.
- remove hair/wool from fiddleheads, soak in salt water to remove bitterness.
- fiddleheads are best when boiled for half an hour in two changes of water.
- fiddleheads can be dried for storage.
- rhizomes can be roasted/pit-steamed, peeled, and pounded to remove whitish edible part from fibers, or chewed to suck out starch.
- dried rhizomes can be ground into flour.
- grows in wide range of areas, including foothills and montane region.
- warning: avoid long term use, has carcinogenic properties.
- warning: avoid mature bracken, which destroys vitamin B and can cause a deadly blood condition.